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The industrial activities, started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhaus, continued to develop.Like many other cities in Eastern Europe, Grodno had a significant Jewish population before the Holocaust: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 46,900, Jews constituted 22,700 (around 48%, or almost half of the total population).This declared its independence from Russia in March 1918 in Minsk (known at that time as Mensk), but then the BNR's Rada (Council) had to leave Minsk and fled to Grodno.

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It was in the New Castle on November 25 of that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated.

In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801.

It was one of the first Jewish communities in the grand duchy.

In 1441 the city received its charter, based on the Magdeburg Law.

In Latin it was known as Grodna (-ae), in Polish as Grodno and in Yiddish as גראָדנע, Grodne. The modern city of Grodno originated as a small fortress and a fortified trading outpost maintained by the Rurikid princes on the border with the lands of the Baltic tribal union of the Yotvingians. Along with Navahrudak, Grodno was regarded as the main city on the western borderlands of Black Ruthenia.

The border region neighboured the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.On September 23 the Polish Army recaptured the city.After the Peace Treaty of Riga, Grodno remained in Poland.After the outbreak of the Polish–Bolshevik War, the German commanders of the Ober Ost feared that the city might fall to Soviet Russia, so on April 27, 1919 they passed authority to Poland.The city was taken over by the Polish Army the following day and Polish administration was established in the city., see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.

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