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Although advances in battery technology have led to substantial reductions in overall sizes and increases in storage capacities, operational lifetimes remain limited, rarely exceeding a few days for wearable devices and a few years for implants (Karami & Inman, "Powering pacemakers from heartbeat vibrations using linear and nonlinear energy harvesters", Appl. Lett., 12901 (2012); Kerzenmacher, et al., "Energy harvesting by implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells", J Power Sources, 182:1-17 (2008); Mateu & Moll, "Review of energy harvesting techniques and applications for microelectronics", Proc SPIE, 589- 373 (2005)).

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The system may contain a single layer of the energy harvesting material. Reductions in viscoelastic dissipation of the flexible substrate material can also be helpful.

Preferably the system contains multiple layers of the energy harvesting material, more preferably in combination with one or more rectifiers and/or batteries. 3E is a schematic illustration of a PZT MEH connected to and co- integrated with a rectifier and rechargeable microbattery. FIG, 3F is a line graph of Voltage across such a battery as a function of time during charging by a PZT MEH under cyclic bending load. 3G is a line graph of the peak voltage output of the PZT MEH is 4.5 V. 4C) as a function of time (seconds) for cyclic bending of a PZT MEH with rectification. Dagdeviren C, et al, "Transient, biocompatible electronics and energy harvesters based on Zn O", Small, 9(20):3398-3404 (2013).

Piezoelectric materials are rigid materials that could restrict movement of the tissue to which they are attached.

Flexible devices based on arrays of piezoelectric Zn O nano wires (NWs) are being developed (Wang, et al., "Direct current nanogenerator driven by ultrasonic wave", Science, 32-105 (2007); Song & Wang, "Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays", Science, 22-246 (2006); Xu, et ah, "Integrated multilayer nanogenerator fabricated using paired nanotip-to-nanowire brushes", Nano Lett., 27-4032 (2008)). 1 IB shows a schematic illustration of the theoretical shape for buckling of a stack of PZT MEHs with spin-cast layers of silicone elastomer (thickness 10 um) in between, under compression. 11C shows a time-averaged power density as a function of the bending load displacement (E: experimental data, T: theory) for stacks consisting of one (bottom curve), three (middle curve) and five (top curve) PZT MEHs, connected in series (in vitro tests). 12A-12C contain graphs illustrating the output voltage as a function of time measured from a stacked arrangement of PZT MEHs. Jones, Engineering Materials (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1980), p. The units of Young's moduli are shown in E which is equivalent to GPa. Definitions The terms "foldable", "flexible" and "bendable" are used synonymously herein and refer to the ability of a material, structure, device, or device component to be deformed into a curved shape without undergoing a transformation that introduces significant strain, such as strain characterizing the failure point of a material, structure, device, or device component.

The effectiveness of the materials and systems was demonstrated in several different in vitro models as well as in vivo animal models, each of which has organs with sizes that approach human scales. 3D) as a function of time for PZT MEHs under bending loads similar to those shown in FIG. The circled portion in the lower left area of the graph is highlighted (magnified) in the graft of FIG. The results highlight the expected stepwise behavior in charging. 4A-4C contain three graphs depicting experimental and theoretical results for displacement (AL, mm) (FIG. In a preferred embodiment the energy harvesting material contains discrete areas or regions of piezoelectric material, typically ranging in size from about 150 cm to 1 cm, interspersed in a flexible substrate material.

A co -integrated collection of such energy harvesting elements with rectifiers and microbatteries provides an entire flexible system, capable of viable integration with the beating heart via medical sutures and operation with efficiencies of ~2%. The results higlighted by the black dashed box give the computed distributions of strain in the PZT ribbons for a displacement load of 5 mm along the horizontal direction. 3B-3D depict experimental and theoretical results for displacement (AL = 10 mm, 5mm, 3 mm, and 1.5 mm) (FIG. In an alternative embodiment, the energy harvesting material is a continuum, with the piezoelectric materials effectively seamlessly integrated into the flexible substrate material.

Such phenomena provide promising opportunities for power supply to wearable and implantable devices that interface with the body. More speculative approaches, based on analytical models of harvesting from pressure-driven deformations of an artery by magneto-hydrodynamics, also exist (Pfenniger, et al., "Energy harvesting through arterial wall deformation: design considerations for a magneto-hydrodynamic generator", Med. Proposals exist for devices that convert heartbeat vibrations into electrical energy using resonantly coupled motions of thick (1 -2 mm) piezoelectric ceramic beams on brass substrates (Karami (2012); Karami & Inman, "Equivalent damping and frequency change for linear and nonlinear hybrid vibrational energy harvesting systems", J Sound Vib., 383-5597 (2011)).

A recent example involves a hybrid kinetic device integrated with the heart for applications with pacemakers (Zurbuchen A, et al, "Energy harvesting from the beating heart by a mass imbalance oscillation generator", Annals of Biomed. While such models highlight the potential for self-powering devices, there are important practical challenges in the coupling of rigid mechanical systems with the soft, dynamic surfaces of the body in a manner that does not induce adverse side effects.

Materials and systems that enable high efficiency conversion of mechanical stress to electrical energy and methods of use thereof are described herein.

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